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How to measure oxygen level with oximeter at home

Pulse Oximetry : Purpose and uses, How it works, Procedure, Readings

How to use oxymeter at home

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive and painless test that measures your oxygen saturation level, or the oxygen levels in your blood. It can rapidly detect even small changes in how efficiently oxygen is being carried to the extremities furthest from the heart, including the legs and the arms.

The pulse oximeter is a small, clip-like device that attaches to a body part, like toes or an earlobe. It’s most commonly put on a finger, and it’s often used in a critical care setting like emergency rooms or hospitals. Some doctors, such as pulmonologists, may use it in office.

Purpose and uses

The purpose of pulse oximetry is to check how well your heart is pumping oxygen through your body.

It may be used to monitor the health of individuals with any type of condition that can affect blood oxygen levels, especially while they’re in the hospital. These conditions include:

There are a number of different common use cases for pulse oximetry, including:

  • to assess how well a new lung medication is working
  • to evaluate whether someone needs help breathing
  • to evaluate how helpful a ventilator is
  • to monitor oxygen levels during or after surgical procedures that require sedation
  • to determine how effective supplemental oxygen therapy is, especially when treatment is new
  • to assess someone’s ability to tolerate increased physical activity
  • to evaluate whether someone momentarily stops breathing while sleeping — like in cases of sleep apnea — during a sleep study

How pulse oximetry works

During a pulse oximetry reading, a small clamp-like device is placed on a finger, earlobe, or toe. Small beams of light pass through the blood in the finger, measuring the amount of oxygen. It does this by measuring changes of light absorption in oxygenated or deoxygenated blood. This is a painless process.

The pulse oximeter will thus be able to tell you your oxygen saturation levels along with your heart rate.


Procedure steps

Pulse oximetry may be used in both inpatient and outpatient settings. In some cases, your doctor may recommend that you have a pulse oximeter for home use.

The pulse oximetry process is as follows:

  • Most commonly, a clip-like device will be placed on your finger, earlobe, or toe. You may feel a small amount of pressure, but there is no pain or pinching. In some cases, a small probe may be placed on your finger or forehead with a sticky adhesive. You may be asked to remove your fingernail polish if it’s being attached to a finger.
  • You’ll keep the probe on for as long as needed to monitor your pulse and oxygen saturation. When monitoring physical activity capabilities, this will be during the extent of the exercise and during the recovery period. During surgery, the probe will be attached beforehand and removed once you’re awake and no longer under supervision. Sometimes, it will only be used to take a single reading very quickly.
  • Once the test is over, the clip or probe will be removed.


Pulse oximetry readings

Pulse oximetry is typically a fairly accurate test. This is especially true when using high-quality equipment found in most medical offices or hospital settings. It consistently provides results within a 2-percent difference either way of what it truly is. If your reading was 82 percent, for example, your true oxygen saturation level may be anywhere from 80 to 84 percent. However, the quality of the waveform and assessment of the individual must be considered. Factors such as movement, temperature, or nail polish can impact the accuracy.

Typically, more than 89 percent of your blood should be carrying oxygen. This is the oxygen saturation level needed to keep your cells — and your body — healthy. While having an oxygen saturation below this temporarily is not believed to cause damage, repeat or consistent instances of lowered oxygen saturation levels may be damaging.

An oxygen saturation level of 95 percent is considered normal for most healthy individuals. A level of 92 percent indicates potential hypoxemia, or deficiency in oxygen reaching tissues in the body.

What’s next?

Once the test is over, your care provider will have the readings available immediately. This will help them determine if other testing or treatment is necessary. If you’re evaluating how successful your oxygen supplementation therapy is, for example, a reading that’s still on the low side might indicate the need for more oxygen.

Your healthcare provider will be able to tell you what the next steps are. If you’re using pulse oximetry at home, they’ll let you know how often to take your readings and what to do if they go above or below certain levels.


Pulse oximetry is a quick, noninvasive, and completely painless test. It comes with no risks aside from potential skin irritation from the adhesive used in some types of probes.

Covid-19 vaccine : Tips to reduce side effects

How to reduce covid vaccine side effects

How to cope with side effects after getting covid vaccine

Although unlikely, if you experience emergency warning symptoms at any time after receiving your COVID-19 vaccine, call 9-1-1 immediately. Emergency warning symptoms include trouble breathing, persistent pain or pressure in the chest, new confusion or inability to arouse, bluish lips or face, or any other sudden and severe symptom.

Common side effects include pain at the injection site, fever, body aches and headaches. These reactions are frequent (and indicate that your body is making an immune response to the vaccine) and should go away within 1-2 days, with the exception that swollen lymph nodes may persist up to about 10 days.

Swollen lymph nodes may be seen on routine screening mammograms for up to a month after vaccination. If you are due for a screening mammogram soon and it will not result in undue delays, you may consider scheduling it 4-6 weeks after your second vaccine appointment.

Help identify and minimize mild side effects

  • Use an ice pack or cool, damp cloth to help reduce redness, soreness and/or swelling at the place where the shot was given.
  • A cool bath can also be soothing.
  • Drink liquids often for 1-2 days after getting the vaccine.
  • Take an over the counter pain reliever unless you have any specific contraindication.

For symptoms that are severe or last 72 hours or more contact your regular clinician or Primary Care Provider.

When to be tested for COVID-19 infection

The following symptoms suggest COVID-19 infection and are not common vaccine side effects

  • New loss of smell or taste
  • Cough or shortness of breath
  • Congestion/sore throat/runny nose/conjunctivitis (red eye)
  • Nausea/vomiting or diarrhea.

If you have one or more of these symptoms, stay at home, and call the Call Center or your regular clinician to schedule a COVID test. If you do have a positive COVID-19 test between your first and second doses of COVID-19 vaccine, you should wait 10 days from when you first tested positive and be fully recovered before getting your second dose. You should still get the second dose.

You must continue to follow the advice of public health officials whether you are vaccinated or not: Wear your mask in public, ensure hand hygiene, and practice social distancing.


How to beat the summer heat : 5 easy-to-make healthy refreshers

These 5 easy-to-make healthy refreshers will keep you hydrated when you need to cool off

How to beat the summer heat

It’s that time of the year when stepping out even for a few minutes is punishing—you come back dripping with sweat, craving something cool to quench your thirst. Be it aam panna or thandai or a glass of cold coffee, a refreshing beverage can get you back on your feet almost immediately. And if you are pressed for time or too tired to make them from scratch, you can stock up on instant versions too.



Concentrated fruit juice or syrups are a quick and easy option that is both flavourful and energy boosting. Add a spoonful or two of the syrup to cold water or chilled milk and you are done. And there are plenty of flavours to choose from: orange, lemon, pineapple, rose—the list is endless.



Made with raw green mangoes, aam panna is a delicious and nutritious old favourite. Other than helping you fight dehydration, this sweet and tangy drink is packed with vitamins B1 , B2 and C, as well as essential minerals such as potassium, magnesium and calcium. You can stock ready-to-drink bottles or use an instant aam panna mix to make yourself a quick refreshing drink any time of the day.



While you may associate thandai with Holi, this drink is a super-nutritious cooler that’s perfect for a hot day too. Literally meaning ‘cold’, thandai is prepared using a mixture of almonds, pepper, rose petals, cardamom, vetiver seeds, saffron, milk, fennel seeds and sugar.



High in water content and packed with vitamins and minerals, coconut water should be your go-to drink before you step out on a hot day or right after you are back indoors. It instantly replenishes fluids lost through sweat without adding many calories. This also makes it the ideal post-workout drink. Coconut water is also great for your skin.



Many tea enthusiasts prefer switching to the iced version of this perennial favourite during the hot months. Brew yourself a cuppa using flavoured tea leaves or go for an instant mix. Icedtea mixes are made by drying the tea leaves and then powdering them. You can make a strong or a mild cold brew based on your preference.



Switch over from your regular mug of cappuccino to a tall, frothy glass of cold coffee. Besides making it the traditional way, you can also keep a few packs of cold-brew mix in your kitchen—all you need to do is add milk and ice and your chilled beverage is ready.

How to stop spreading coronavirus into your home : COVID-19 Home Care & Precautions

Coronavirus (COVID-19): Home Care & Precautions

Doctors might recommend home care if someone in your family:

  • has coronavirus (COVID-19)
  • was tested for COVID-19 and is waiting for the results
  • has flu symptoms (like a fever, cough, and sore throat)

Anyone who is sick — even if they don’t know for sure they have coronavirus (COVID-19) — should stay home unless they need medical care. This helps prevent the illness from spreading to other people.

What Should We Do at Home?

To protect others at home, someone who is sick should:

  • As much as possible, keep away from other people and pets in your home.
  • Wear a cloth face covering (or face mask, if you have one) if they must be around other people. Cloth face coverings are for use only by people older than 2 years old who are not having trouble breathing. Do not leave a child alone while they’re wearing a cloth face covering. To see how to put on and remove cloth face coverings and face masks, clean them, or make your own cloth face covering, check the CDC’s guide.
  • Cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, throw the tissue away, and then wash their hands right away. Wash with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • If possible, stay in a bedroom and use a bathroom separate from other people in the home.
  • Use separate dishes, glasses, cups, and eating utensils and not share these with other household members. After use, run them through the dishwasher or wash with very hot soapy water.
  • Use separate bedding and towels and not share these with other household members.


  • If the person who is sick can’t wear a cloth face covering (or face mask), caregivers should wear one while they’re in the same room.
  • Make sure shared spaces in the home have good air flow. You can open a window or turn on an air filter or air conditioner.
  • Do not allow visitors into your home. This includes children and adults.
  • All household members should wash their hands well and often. Wash with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Wash the sick person’s clothing, bedding, and towels with detergent on the hottest temperature possible. Wear gloves when handling their laundry, if possible. Wash your hands well after handling the laundry (even if you wore gloves).
  • Every day, use a household cleaner or wipe to clean things that get touched a lot. These include doorknobs, light switches, toys, remote controls, sink handles, counters, and phones. Keep a sick child’s toys separate from other toys, if possible.

To protect others in your community:

  • The person who is sick should stay home unless they need medical care.
  • Other household members also should stay home. Follow instructions from your doctor, local health care department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about who should stay home and for how long.
  • If you must go out of the house, wear a cloth face covering or face mask and keep at least 6 feet (2 meters) of distance between you and other people.
  • Tell other people who were around the sick person. Your local or state health department can help you if you aren’t sure who to notify.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

If the person you’re caring for seems to be getting sicker, call your doctor right away. Tell the doctor about their symptoms and whether they’ve been tested for coronavirus (COVID-19).

If they need to go to the doctor:

  • The person should wear a cloth face covering, if available.
  • Keep tissues handy in case they need to cough or sneeze.

Go to the emergency room or call 911 if the person has trouble breathing, is confused, or is very drowsy.

What Else Should I Know?

If you’re caring for someone with coronavirus or who has coronavirus symptoms, keep taking these precautions until your doctor or local health department say it’s safe to stop doing so.

It can get pretty lonely and boring for kids who are sick and need to stay home. While they’re separated from family, classmates, and friends, kids who feel well enough may want to:

  • Talk on the phone or do a video call with family and friends.
  • Text or use other messaging apps to talk with family and friends.
  • Play online games that let them play with other kids from home.
  • Do puzzles or Legos. Keep these clean and keep separate from other toys in the house.

Clean items used by the sick person (such as phones and computers) before other family members use them.

Check the CDC and World Health Organization (WHO) websites for up-to-date, reliable information about coronavirus.

How to get a lost or stuck contact lens out of your eye

How to get a lost or stuck contact lens out of your eyeHow to get contacts from behind eye

Getting a contact lens stuck in your eye happens occasionally and can be uncomfortable and irritating. Here are some quick and easy solutions for releasing a troublesome lens.

It is normal when you first start wearing contacts to have a little bit of trouble inserting and removing them. You can read our guide to removing and inserting contact lenses. With a little bit of practice, you’ll be able to do it smoothly with no trouble. Here are some common questions regarding getting a lens stuck in your eye and how to deal with it.


Why is my contact lens stuck in my eye?

If you have slept in your lenses or aren’t taking good care of them, the contacts are prone to drying out, leaving the lens stuck to your eyeball. If you fall asleep in your lenses, avoid pulling the lens out right away. Drink a bit of water, rehydrate yourself and let your eye gain a bit of moisture. This will make a contact stuck in eye easier to remove.


What happens if contacts get stuck in eye?

The most common misconceptions about contact lenses are that they can get stuck behind your eye. A contact getting stuck behind the eye is not physically possible; your eyelid is structured to prevent any objects from going to the back of your eye.

A contact lens that gets stuck in the eye is usually a soft contact lens rather than a gas permeable lens. However it is possible for both to get stuck and its wise to be aware that removing a soft contact lens is very different to removing a rigid gas permeable lens.


How do I remove a lens that’s stuck in my eye?

The first rule about how to remove a contact lens that’s stuck in your eye is not to panic; trying to pry the lens out may cause more discomfort. Wash your hands before attempting to remove the lens, to avoid getting any bacteria from your hands going in your eye and causing an infection.


Removing a soft contact lens from your eye

Always make sure you wash your hands thoroughly before attempting to remove a stuck contact lens. If the stuck contact lens is centered on your cornea, you can rinse your eye and the contact that’s stuck with sterile saline or contact lens rewetting drops such as our comfi Drops. Once you have applied the saline solution or eye drops, close your eye and gently massage your eyelid until the lens moves.

On the other hand, if your eyes are watering heavily, that can also make getting lenses out slightly difficult. Gently wipe your tears away, then, as always, before removing your lenses wash your hands thoroughly. Ensure your fingers are completely dry and this will make removing a stuck lens a little easier.


Removing a stuck gas permeable contact lens from your eye

If you are wearing gas permeable lenses and they get stuck in your eye, you must avoid massaging your eyelid as this can cause abrasion to the eye. Instead, it is recommended that you use a suction cup to pull the lens of your eye gently .


Can my contact lens get lost in my eye?

If you think the contact lens is lost in your eye, it’s probably hiding under your upper eyelid. Simply pull it back slightly to have look and use contact lens solution to flush it out.


What to do if you can’t remove a stuck contact lens

If the lens remains after following the above steps, we advise you to seek medical advice from a doctor or an eye specialist. This should be done as soon as possible to prevent any further problems from occurring.


Top tips to prevent contacts getting lost or stuck in your eye

Unless it is an extended wear lens, never sleep in your contact lenses – this can limit the oxygen flow to your cornea and dry out your eyes. In addition, you also risk infection.

Always clean your lenses before putting them in and taking them out. Follow a good eye care and contact lens cleaning routine if your wear monthlies or two weekly’s. Make sure you use fresh contact lens solution to prevent the spread of bacteria.

How to test new covid strain / variant : Test coronavirus in home

Emerging variants of an infectious virus are to be expected, but new, more transmissible forms of Covid-19 cropping up around the world have been an understandable cause for concern. Could these variants impact the way we test for the disease?

Covid-19 variants represent a confusing factor in the spread of the pandemic. From the UK and Brazil to South Africa, the US and now Germany, mutant strains of Covid-19 have been causing concern wherever they emerge.

SARS-CoV-2 mutations are unfortunately to be expected – mutating is part and parcel of what viruses do, and the Covid-19 virus has been mutating ever since it emerged. Most of these mutations don’t substantially change the virus and some might actually be to its detriment, causing the variant to die out.

“Viruses mutate all the time, but we are only interested if it changes their features or how they behave,” says University of Kent professor of molecular medicine Dr Martin Michaelis. “We see this with influenza – every year, we need a new vaccine.”

But as pressure on the virus increases and it has fewer eligible hosts, it’s forced to evolve into forms that can still transmit. For now, the new strains of Covid-19 do not appear to increase the severity of the illness, but evidence suggests that they are more easily transmissible – though estimates for quite how much range wildly.

Could the new variants evade testing?

The new strains and mutations are identified by taking samples from positive patients for background observation of the genetic code. As such, the chance of an emergent Covid-19 variant evading tests is highly unlikely.

Currently, the most widely used tests for Covid-19 are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and lateral flow tests (LFTs).

“As you have a sample of the virus strain you should be able to detect it,” says PrescriptionDoctor.com general practitioner Dr Giuseppe Aragona. “Lateral flow tests are less accurate than PCR in general, so PCR would be the best and most accurate way of testing the emerging variants. I would not think there would be any issue with testing, especially with PCR, as any virus strains will be picked up.”

PCR tests work by taking an upper respiratory specimen, most commonly a nasopharyngeal swab. Reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase enzymes are added to the sample, and make many copies of any viral RNA present in the sample. This is so that enough copies are present that the presence of the virus can be detected when the sample is then tested.

Primers and probes are then deployed, attaching themselves to specific sequences in the virus’s genetic code, which can then signal that the sample is positive. These primers and probes are designed to target specific segments of the virus’s genome that are unlikely to change over time.

Michaelis says: “I don’t think PCR will ever be an issue, because with PCR you pick the most conserved areas of the genome of a virus. You don’t go for something like the spike region which binds to receptors because that will change, as this is where antibodies will bind, but something that is conserved. The current PCR that we have doesn’t even discriminate between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, because so much is conserved between the two viruses that they are 80% the same.”

LFTs are not as accurate as PCRs, and don’t work in quite the same way. An LFT for Covid-19 works similarly to a pregnancy test, with a liquid sample coming into contact with an absorbent pad fitted with components which react to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Even so, experts believe it is again unlikely that these tests will be thwarted by new viral variants.

“Most [LFTs] are actually based on the nucleocapsid protein,” says Michaelis. “It’s much more stable than the spike protein. So again, the risk is not that big.”

What about vaccines?

Currently, researchers are testing the first crop of vaccines against the new variants, and we should know in the coming weeks whether or not they’re still effective.

There is good reason to be optimistic here – the vaccines are designed to generate an immune response to multiple different parts of the virus, which means a lone mutation is unlikely to render a vaccine ineffective. Even if the antibodies generated by immunization become unable to recognize one element of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, they will still be able to recognize the others and dispatch it.

Eventually, the virus probably will mutate enough to evade the vaccines in their current form, but this isn’t as dire as it sounds – we see this happen every year with the flu, where developing a new jab is a standard part of vaccine manufacturers’ annual workload. But it doesn’t appear we’re at that stage just yet, and any necessary tweaks to the vaccines won’t take nearly as long as the experimental candidates took to develop.

Now the bare bones of developing a Covid-19 vaccine have been laid out, any necessary updates should be fairly straightforward.

How to do push ups for female beginners at home

Pushups are a simple and effective bodyweight movement that can help increase strength in your upper body and core. This exercise works the pectoral muscles in your chest and the triceps. These are the muscles in the back of your upper arms.

You don’t need any equipment to get started with pushups. They’re suitable for beginners and individuals who are more advanced with exercise.

Progressing to pushups

While you may be familiar with standard pushups, there are many variations that may help you get started, progress, or increase difficulty.

Try doing a set of 10 to 15 of each exercise, rest, and then do another set of 10 to 15.

Performing fewer pushups with correct form will be better over time than completing many with poor form.

Here are five pushup variations that increase in difficulty.

Wall pushups

Doing a standing pushup against the wall is a good starting place if you’re new to this move. By standing, you put less pressure on your joints.

  1. With your feet shoulder-width apart, stand about an arm’s length away from a wall.
  2. Place your palms on the wall as you lean forward into a standing plank position. Your arms should be shoulder height and shoulder-width apart.
  3. Inhale as you bend your elbows and slowly move your upper body toward the wall while keeping your feet flat on the ground.
  4. Hold this position for a second or two.
  5. Exhale and use your arms to push your body slowly back to your starting position.

Change it up

As you get more comfortable, you can try one-handed wall pushups. Follow all the instructions above, but alternate sets by placing one arm bent behind you with the outside of your hand on the small of your back. You could also alternate keeping one arm at your side as you pushup with the other.

To work on stability in your shoulders, try pushups from a seated position.

  1. Sit on a bench with your palms down, arms at your side. Your feet should rest comfortably on the ground with your knees bent.
  2. Using your arms, push down into your palms so that your body lifts up — still in the seated position. Your hips and butt should be just a half inch or so off the bench.
  3. Lower back down to your starting position and repeat.

Kneeling pushups

Balancing on your knees instead of your feet is another good modification while you build your strength.

  1. Begin in a hands and knees position with your gaze at the floor.
  2. Place your hands on the ground on either side of your shoulders. Your knees should be at a comfortable distance apart.
  3. Inhale as you slowly lower your elbows to bring your chest toward the ground. Be sure to keep your core muscles contracted.
  4. Pause for a second in the lowered position — your chin may lightly touch the ground.
  5. Exhale as you push up from the ground to your starting position.

Another way to start this pushup is to begin by laying on your stomach. Bend your knees so your feet are up in the air, then push with your hands into position on your knees.

Standard pushups

Fully extending your legs increases the difficulty of this move by adding more body weight. One study showed that the “ground reaction force” or how much weight you push is 64 percent of your body weight with standard pushups. To compare, a kneeling pushup is 49 percent.

  1. Begin with your chest and stomach flat on the floor. Your legs should be straight out behind you and your palms should be at chest level with the arms bent out at a 45-degree angle.
  2. Exhale as you push from your hands and heels, bringing your torso, chest, and thighs off the ground.
  3. Pause for a second in the plank position — keep your core engaged.
  4. Inhale as you slowly lower back to your starting position.

Change it up

Another great variation of the standard pushup is a pushup with hip abduction. Follow the same instructions as a standard pushup, but lift your left leg off the ground as you lower. Move it slightly further out than your hips and keep your foot flexed. Then repeat on the other side after switching legs from the plank position.

Incline pushups

If you want to really challenge your upper body, try incline pushups. You’ll need a stable surface on which to place your hands.

  1. Place your hands on the edge of the elevated surface. A bench, step, or other sturdy platform are good options.
  2. Step your feet back so your legs are straight and your arms are perpendicular to your body.
  3. Inhale as you slowly lower your chest to the edge of your platform.
  4. Pause for a second.
  5. Exhale as you push back to your starting position with your arms fully extended.

You can further increase difficulty by using a medicine ball, BOSU or balance ball, or suspension trainer. Doing so will make your body work harder to stabilize, taxing muscles even more.


4 tips and more modifications

Good form and positioning are key if you want to get the most from your workout. Comfort, form, and safety are key parts of any exercise.

The right form can protect your body from injury and make sure you’re getting full engagement from the muscles you’re trying to work.

Comfort measures

Try these methods to make your pushups more comfortable.

  • Perform pushups on a yoga mat or similar surface instead of a bare floor.
  • When doing kneeling pushups, place a folded towel under your knees for extra cushioning.
  • To avoid wrist pain, place hands directly under shoulders with your fingers pointing directly in front of you.
  • Place palms flat on the floor versus cupping your hands. This avoids straining your hands.
  • Look down at the ground during this exercise to avoid straining your neck.

Overall form

When doing pushups on the ground, you’ll want to keep a flat back. Resist sagging your spine or arching it up toward the ceiling. Contracting your core muscles will help keep your form in check. Make sure to keep your movements slow and controlled versus slamming your body down too quickly.

Your shoulders, hips, and ankles should be aligned.

Try asking yourself some questions to check in with your form:

  • Where are my hands?
  • Where are my shoulders?
  • Do I have good contact with the ground beneath me?
  • Are my core muscles engaged?

Hand positioning (narrow vs. wide)

You might wonder how hand positioning might increase difficulty. Your options are holding your hands wide apart or more narrowly together. One study from 2005Trusted Source suggests that the narrow base position increases muscle activation in the pectorals and triceps.

To incorporate hand positioning into your routine, try keeping your palms in front of your chest and your elbows in toward your body at the start of your pushups.

Building strength

Pushups may be hard to complete at first, even with modification. If you cannot complete 10 to 15, start with sets of 5 or less and build from there.

Increasing strength and endurance takes time but is worth the effort. Remember, performing fewer pushups with correct form will be better over time than completing many with poor form.


New to exercise? It’s an excellent idea to check in with a personal trainer to ensure you’re performing pushups correctly. You might be able to talk to someone from a gym or through your healthcare provider.

The takeaway

After you get the hang of pushups and are confident with your form, you may want to try a pushups challenge. Consistency is important to building strength. In the challenge, you work your way up over the course of 2 months until you can complete 100 pushups at one time.

Even if you’re not looking to go so extreme, incorporating this efficient body-weight exercise into your routine is sure to strengthen your upper body, back, and core to help with everyday movement.